Birkat HaChamah by the Kotel (Western Wall), 8 April 2009, Copyright Lipaphotography
Birkat HaChamah, the Blessing of the Sun, is a special mitzvah that only happens once every 28 years. It’s happened twice in my lifetime so far, 1981 and 2009. The average person might get to perform it 3-4 times in a lifetime.
The next time it’ll happen is 2037, and then 2065, 2093, and 2121. If I’m blessed enough to live to 2093, I’ll be 113. I’d like to make it to 2100, if only to say I lived in three centuries.
Birkat HaChamah falls out when the Sun completes its cycle, always on a Tuesday at sundown. However, it’s postponed till Wednesday morning, when the Sun is visible.
According to traditional Jewish theology, this is when the Sun returns to the position it was in on the non-literal fourth day of creation. Many scholars and rabbis, Orthodox as well as progressive, have interpreted the Torah’s concept of creation days as lasting more than 24 hours.
Sunrise over Yerushalayim on Birkat HaChamah 2009, Copyright Bcohn
One looks at the Sun on the horizon while reciting the blessing ברוך אתה ה’ אלהינו מלך העולם עושה מעשה בראשית, “Blessèd are you, Lord our God, King of the Universe, Maker of the works of Creation.”
Some people modify the Hebrew to use female language (e.g., Malka [Queen] vs. Melech [King]). Hashem has both male and female attributes, invoked at different times. When I say the famous Avinu Malkeynu (Our Father, Our King) prayer on the High Holy Days, I alternate the first lines as “Our Father, Our King” and “Our Mother, Our Queen.”
It’s a very brief service, with the first six lines of Psalm 148 before the Sun blessing, followed by Psalms 19, 121, and 150, a Talmud passage about Birkat HaChamah, Psalm 167, the Aleynu prayer, and Mourner’s Kaddish.
Preparing for Birkat HaChamah in 2009 in Yerushalayim, Copyright Chadica
Since this is such a rare mitzvah, everyone is urged to participate in it, even small children. This isn’t something like missing Shabbos or holiday services, where there’s another chance next week or year.
If the Sun is completely blocked, minority opinions allow the blessing to be recited regardless. We should always encourage people to do a mitzvah, esp. considering this one only comes once every 28 years, and tomorrow is never guaranteed.
I wrote a short story called “Birkat HaChamah,” set 7.5 billion years in the future, in the days leading up to the final Birkat HaChamah ever. It ends as the subgiant, red giant, maximum radius Sun swallows the Moon and Earth, shortly after a super-elder, at least 10,000 years old, pronounces the blessing from the final rocket to evacuate.
Red giant Sun and carbonized Earth, Copyright Fsgregs