Famous surnames (intentional) in my Russian historicals

From late ’96 on, any well-known Russian surnames I’ve chosen for characters have been intentional. Not all of these famous names belong to laudatory people, but it’s unrealistic for every single character in any book to have a name untainted by any negative namesakes or associations.

One could read the choice of some of these names on some of these characters as a political allegory of sorts, but that wasn’t really my intention. Certain were chosen in the context of the late Nineties.

Apart from Ivan’s uncle by marriage, Grigoriy Golitsyn, all my former princes’ and nobles’ names  (e.g., Orlov, Obolensky) were deliberately chosen.

Boris N. Yeltsin (1931–2007), http://state.kremlin.ru/president/allbio

Yeltsina, one of my main families, introduced with 13-year-old third sister Lena in 1920. Matriarch Mrs. Yeltsina, who’s run boardinghouses almost her entire adult life, is my oldest character in these books, born in 1866. Lena and her little sister Natalya are an entire generation apart from older sisters Valya and Zina. I have very mixed feelings about their namesake, but ultimately feel he was a decent person who started out trying to do the right thing.

Gorbachëva, Lena’s surrogate mother Sonya, and Sonya’s younger daughter Karla, whom she’s separated from in 1919 and doesn’t see again till 1953. After Karla is separated from her cousin Naina and their friend Katya, she’s adopted by Leonid Savvin and convinced her birth family are enemies of the people. She falls deeply under Stalin’s spell. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachëv is one of my heroes.

Gennadiy A. Zyuganov (born 1944) 
http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/19646/photos

Zyuganov(a), one of my main families, introduced through 10-year-old orphanage girl Inessa in December 1919. Her Dyadya (Uncle) Dima adopts her and five of her friends, after already having 27 of his own children. Some of the family later escapes Minsk to begin new lives in the West, but they remain committed Communists and atheists.

Gennadiy Andreyevich Zyuganov came in second in both the 1996 presidential election, and the run-off. If he’d won, Putin (who was left in charge by Yeltsin) might never have come to power, but no, the West just had to meddle and pull Yeltsin’s ratings out of the toilet. God forbid a Communist become president! The current Communist Party of Russia is NOT one and the same as the old one!

Vladimir V. Zhirinovskiy (born 1946), duma.gov.ru

Zhirinovskiy/skaya, Inessa’s dear friend Inna, who becomes co-director of their Kyiv orphanage as an adult, and later defects to Iran along with forty children, ten employees, and the elderly director. Inna’s little brother Vitya becomes Inessa’s second husband. Their namesake runs the arch-conservative Liberal Democratic Party, which is neither liberal nor democratic. 

Chernomyrdina, Naina’s best friend Katya, four years her senior, also the daughter of Sonya’s own best friend. She’s sometimes called Older Katya, to distinguish her from Lyuba and Ivan’s daughter Katya. Viktor Stepanovich Chernomyrdin (1938–2010) was Yeltsin’s Prime Minister, and famous for his malapropisms.

Yezhova, fiesty orphanage girl Naina, who totes a handgun her father gave her before she was taken away. She uses that gun to protect the citrine necklace her mother gave her. She and Katya defect in 1927, and join Sonya in Toronto several months later. Nikolay Ivanovich Yezhov was a total scumbag who played a major role in the Great Terror. Karma came calling when the same fate was delivered to him!

Khrushchëva, orphanage girl Svetlana, who appears in the first two books. Obviously named after Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchëv.

Lebedev(a), one of the main families, introduced through 17-year-old orphaned Nadezhda in 1919. Her uncle Ilya later becomes Lyuba’s stepfather, after several years of having a surrogate father-daughter relationship. Mr. Lebedev has ten daughters by his first marriage. General Aleksandr Ivanovich Lebed (whose surname means “swan”) was the candidate I supported in the 1996 presidential election. He came in third. I was so sad when he was killed in a helicopter crash in 2002!

General Lebed (1950–2002), photo by Mikhail A. Yevstafyev

Kosygina, a teacher at Aleksandrovskiy Gymnasium in the first book and future second prequel. Aleksey Nikolayevich Kosygin was a prominent politician under Khrushchëv and Brezhnev.

To be continued.

Riverdale, Toronto

Aerial shot of Riverdale, 31 December 1941

Riverdale is a large neighbourhood of Toronto. Its boundaries are Lake Shore Blvd. (south), the Don River Valley (west), Greektown and Danforth Ave. (north), and the Jones Ave. section of the Canadian National Railway and GO Transit tracks in Leslieville (east).

It was annexed to Toronto in 1884, and has long been known as very multicultural. This was a neighbourhood many immigrants came to—Irish, Greek, Russian, Italian, German, Polish, Finnish, Ukrainian, British, Chinese.

Many Riverdale houses are Victorian and Edwardian, having started life as boarding houses for the proletariat in the 19th century. Sadly, since gentrification has struck, many long-time residents have been priced out and replaced by hipsters and the bourgeoisie.

Lower Riverdale contains the neighbourhood’s six original houses on the west end of Simpson Ave. They’re known as The Six Sisters.

29 July 1931, looking north on Carlaw Ave. at Gerrard St.

18 October 1912, Danforth Ave. at Don Mills Rd. (now Broadview Ave.), looking west

7 July 1913, northwest corner of Danforth Ave. and Don Mills Rd. (now Broadview Ave.)

Riverdale contains many sub-neighbourhoods:

Lower Riverdale (the oldest section, with many original houses)
Upper Riverdale (most likely to have modern, renovated houses)
East Chinatown (Toronto’s next-largest Chinatown)
Badgerow (contains a Sikh temple, the legendary Maple Leaf tavern, a Jewish cemetery, Gerrard Square’s shopping mall, and a Turkish cultural centre)
Studio District (southern area of South Riverdale, with many vintage Victorian houses; a major film, TV, and arts district)
Riverside (a.k.a. Queen Broadview Village) (in South Riverdale, with many historic buildings and cultural landmarks; now undergoing gentrification and becoming known as a district of restaurants, food and furniture retailers, and independent designers)
Blake-Jones (houses built from the 1870s–1930s, rather affordable but seeing an uptick in crime and unemployment)
The Pocket (located within Blake-Jones; said to feel like a village, and undergoing more gentrification)

29 February 1932, Danforth Ave. at Logan Ave., looking east

1 January 1930, southwest corner of Danforth Ave. and Logan Ave., Tony Greco and mother’s fruit stand

Riverdale contains many schools, including Riverdale Collegiate Institute, a high school founded in 1907 as Riverdale Technical School. Another historic school is Holy Name Catholic School, founded in 1913 by the Sisters of St. Joseph.

Parks include Withrow Park (with an ice rink, soccer field, and two baseball diamonds); Riverdale Park (with a running track, ice rink, swimming pool, three baseball diamonds, and tennis courts); Jimmy Simpson Park (with a community centre and tennis courts); the Royal Canadian Curling Club; Hubbard Park; and Kempton Howard Park (formerly East View Park).

Riverdale Park, looking south, Copyright Inkey

Detail of reconstructed Broadview Hotel, Copyright JasonParis; Source

Broadview Hotel in 1945

Other landmarks include The Opera House (opened 1909); Bridgepoint Health (founded 1875 and  going through many names); the Ralph Thornton Community Centre (opened 1913); Don Jail (opened 1864); the Cranfield House (built 1902); and St. John’s Presbyterian Church.

Don Jail, Copyright Nadiatalent

My characters Lena Yeltsina and Antonina Petrova settle in Riverdale with their newfound surrogate mother Sonya Gorbachëva when they escape Russia in 1920. Lena is soon reunited with her young son Yuriy, who’s been languishing in a Manhattan orphanage, and takes him back to Toronto under the ruse of Sonya being the mother.

In 1921, Lena’s little sister Natalya comes to America, and joins her in Canada as soon as possible. When their mother and two much-older sisters arrive in New York in January 1924, Lena explains their life is in Canada now, and that after so many years of separation, Natalya doesn’t know them.

Lena and Natalya stay in close touch with their mother and older sisters, and create a very happy life in Toronto. In 1927, they’re joined by Sonya’s niece, Naina Yezhova, and her best friend Katya Chernomyrdina, the daughter of Sonya’s own best friend.

How to avoid or minimize duplicate names with an ensemble cast

I’ve often seen the suggestion to avoid using the same letter or starting sound for characters, like Amelia and Amber or Jonas and James. This is sound advice, if you’re working with a fairly small cast. When you’re dealing with a large ensemble cast, particularly when it continues growing with the addition of new generations, that advice is no longer practical. However, there are some ways to minimize the risk.

Realistically speaking, you can’t always give a different name to each and every single character. You always want to avoid the extremes of gut-loading your book with current Top 100 names and only using outliers. A book quickly dates if every single character has a name like McMadysynne, Aidanjadenbradencadenmaiden, Ellabella, and CowboyHunter, just as it stands out for the wrong reasons if everyone is named Polyxena, Wolfgang, Ghisolabella, and Demetrius. In real life, social circles are more likely to have a mix of trendy, classic, unusual, foreign, and invented names.

Particularly when we’re dealing with historical characters or characters from traditionally more conservative cultures, it’s not really plausible for everyone to have different names. Let’s be honest, it’s not unusual to find numerous Johns, Marys, Williams, and Sarahs in the same generation of one family tree. During its last century or so of existence, the Russian Imperial Family pretty much used the same dozen or so names over and over again (with some notable exceptions). Even the name Pyotr was only used once after Peter III, on a grand duke born in 1864.

In my Russian historicals, duplicate names include Andrey, Natalya, Aleksandr, and Sofya. The trick is using these names on characters who don’t really appear together because they’re not so closely connected, or using different nicknames. My older Sofya goes by Sonya, and Lyuba and Ivan’s next-youngest child goes by Sonyechka. For now, she’s still young enough to use that nickname. You can also use a name on a major character and on a minor character s/he’ll never share a scene with.

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There’s also the trick of distinguishing characters by titles vs. first names or nicknames. I don’t care how old-fashioned this supposedly has become; I’ll always call my adult or older characters Mr., Ms., Mrs., or Miss. This way, there’s no confusion between, e.g., a grandfather and grandson who share the same name.

In my Atlantic City books, the wealthy Sewards have an unbroken custom of alternating the names Maxwell Stanley and Stanley Maxwell among firstborn sons. Father and son share their name, and the grandson starts over. So far, I’ve had Great-Great-Grandpa Max, Great-Grandpa Stanley, Grandpa Stan, Mr. Seward, Max, Fudzie, and Stan. The name Fudzie came to Max in a dream when he was eleven, and he was so attached to it, he used it as his son’s nickname. Mr. Seward threatened to cut him out of the will if Max didn’t kowtow to family tradition by naming his son Stanley Maxwell.

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I have a number of Kat- names in my Russian historicals, and I similarly use different nicknames and titles. Lyuba’s mother is Mrs. Lebedeva (formerly Mrs. Zhukova), Katya, Machekha (Stepmother) Katya, Tyotya (Aunt) Katya, or Babushka (Grandma) Katya, depending upon who’s addressing her, but she’s always a Mrs. in the narrative.

Radical Katariina Kalvik-Nikonova is called Katrin in the narrative and by most people, though her husband and sister often call her Kati, and her friends’ children call her Tädi (Aunt) Kati.

Little Katerina Vishinskaya goes by Kittey, a non-Russian nickname I found justification for keeping because of its usage in Anna Karenina. The nicknames Kitty, Dolly, Betsy, and Annie are spelt phonetically, as English, like French, was a fashionable language among the upper-class at that time. I just think the spelling Kittey looks a little more believably Russified than Kitti, Kiti, or Kitty.

Kittey’s sister-in-law Katriyana goes by Kat, which I kept by justifying as her way of standing out from the crowd of 15 sisters and not wanting to be just another Katya. I found out later Katriyana isn’t such a traditional Russian name, but I innocently copied it from Felice Holman’s The Wild Children, trusting those were all real Russian names. I think it works because a number of Kat’s sisters have less-traditional/common names, like Yelikonida, Alisa, and Rozaliya, and by the time you get to your 15th child, you kind of have to think creatively.

Lyuba and Ivan’s fourth-born child (Ivan’s special pet), Yekaterina Koneva, goes by Katya. Her family also calls her ptichka, “little bird.”

When Katya Chernomyrdina appears with Katya Koneva, they’re Older Katya and Younger Katya.

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Some Russian names are lucky enough to have several base nickname forms, like Anastasiya (Asya, Stasya, Nastya), Nadezhda (Dusya, Nadya), Aleksandr/a (Sasha, Shura, Sanya), Yelena (Lena, Lyolya), Lyubov (Lyuba, Busya), Dmitriy (Dima, Mitya), Georgiy (Zhora, Gosha), Pavel (Pasha, Pavlik), and Vladimir (Vova, Volodya). In English, names with multiple nicknames include William, Elizabeth, Katherine, the Jul- names, John, and the Al- names. Using child vs. adult forms of a nickname is a perfect way to distinguish characters, like Joe and Joey or Lizzie vs. Beth.

You should always try as much as possible to use different names for every character, but sometimes it’s just not feasible.

Cherkasy, Ukraine

C

St. Michael’s Cathedral, image by Turzh.

The Cathedral of St. Mykola, image by Вальдимар (Valdymar).

Cherkasy is a city of about 287,500 in Central Ukraine, on the banks of the Dnepro (or Dnipro) River, by the Kremenchuk Reservoir. A nearby epoynymous forest is Ukraine’s largest wooded area. More than 800 different species of flora live in the forest, with 18 endangered.

The city was established in 1286, and recently celebrated its 725th anniversary. It was first mentioned in official records in 1305, during the era of Kyivan Rus. In the 1360s, it became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Most people who aren’t into history have no idea that Lithuania was a huge empire and European player in this era. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Cherkasy was an epicentre of Cossackdom. Cherkasy became part of the Polish Kingdom in the 1660s, and became part of the Russian Empire after the Second Partition of Poland.

During the Russian Civil War, Cherkasy changed hands between Reds and Whites over 18 times, until it finally went Red for good in 1920. Under Soviet rule, Cherkasy was devastated by the Holodomor (the deliberate Ukrainian famine of 1932-33) and the Great Terror of 1936-8, and then again during the Nazi occupation. Cherkasy was bombed on the first day of Operation Barbarossa, 22 June 1941. In December 1943, it was liberated.

Cherkasy Bridge, image by Вальдимар.

Suborna (Cathedral) Square, image by Вальдимар.

Cherkasy makes a brief appearance in my second Russian historical, The Twelfth Time, in Chapter 15, “More Tales Out of Kyiv.” On 5 January 1926, orphanage girls Naina Yezhova, her cousin Karla Gorbachëva, and their best friend Katya Chernomyrdina get permission to leave Mrs. Brezhneva’s orphanage. Katya recently turned 18, and wouldn’t dream of leaving without Naina and Karla. On the train from Kyiv to Cherkasy, 8-year-old Karla explores the train and ends up walking along the top of the cars. As the train rolls through Bila Tserkva, she falls off, breaks her leg, hits her head, and temporarily falls unconscious.

Naina had already noticed Karla hadn’t come back in a normal time, and she and Katya couldn’t find her after a thorough search. They’re frantic by the time the train pulls into Cherkasy, and they speak to police at the depot. More searches of the train turn up nothing, and they’re forced to continue on to Odessa without Karla. Later on, after they’re in Toronto with Naina’s aunt Sonya, they discover Karla was rescued and adopted, and now believes they’re horrible enemies of the people for leaving the USSR.

Hill of Glory, image by Сергій Криниця (Haidamac) (Sergiy Krynytsya)

Cherkasy has a lot of public parks, including two children’s parks and a park with a zoo. It’s also home to a number of unique museums (such as a museum exclusively devoted to Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko’s poetry book Kobzar), a puppet theatre, a philharmonic, and many Orthodox and Catholic churches.

The city is well-known for its sculpture festivals. In the Winter, ice sculptures are shown; in the Summer, wooden sculptures are shown and then transferred to various city parks; and in Autumn, stone sculptures.

The Hill of Glory once contained the Cherkasy Fortress, an ancient Russian fort, and the Holy Trinity Church, all of which were destroyed in 1977 to build the Motherland monument on top of the former Castle Hill.

Wedding Palace, Copyright Sergiy Klymenko, from klymenko.data-tec.net and serg-klymenko.narod.ru.

The Shcherbina House, now known as the Wedding Palace, is an amazing example of architecture in Cherkasy. In pre-Revolution days, as Adrian Shcherbina’s mansion, it was the most luxurious, sumptuous building in the city. Under Soviet rule, it had the nickname The Palace of Happiness, due to being the city’s registrar, where many weddings were performed.

More information:

http://www.rada.cherkasy.ua/ua/

http://kehilalinks.jewishgen.org/cherkasy/Cherkassy.research.pdf

http://www.archives.gov.ua/Eng/Archives/ra24.php

http://visitcherkasy.com/en/city/history.html

Naina and Katya in North America (News Gothic)

Font: News Gothic

Year created: 1908

Chapter: “Naina and Katya in North America”

Book: The Twelfth Time: Lyuba and Ivan on the Rocks

Written: 3-11 September 2011

Computer created on: 2008 15-inch MacBook Pro

File format: Word 2004

This is Chapter 29 of my second Russian historical novel, starring two of my favorite secondary characters. Since their introduction in December 1919, Yekaterina Karlovna Chernomyrdina and Naina Antonovna Yezhova have been among the principal orphanage girls. Now their particular story finally links up with the characters in New York. They got permission to leave the Soviet Union in late 1926, but decided to wait out the winter in Yalta. Sadly, they became separated from Naina’s younger cousin Karla on their train away from the orphanage.

In April 1927, they went to Bulgaria on the pretext of taking an approved cruise, and met up with a man who arranged for their passage to America with a dance troupe. At Ellis Island in June, they met Katrin’s husband Sandros, one of the immigration workers, and he took pity on them and sponsored them. At the time, he didn’t realize these were old friends of Lyuba’s youngest stepsisters. Over the summer, they vacationed with Lyuba’s friends and family on Coney Island and Long Island, till early September. Naina’s aunt Sonya was then contacted, and the girls began a new life in Toronto.

Some highlights:

They stand and gape when they see a woman with blonde hair cut as short as a man’s.  They’ve known bobbed hair is in fashion for women, but not that women in North America are allowed to get away with cutting it even shorter.  The second thing they notice is the woman with dark brown skin.  Neither of them has ever seen anyone with such dark skin before, except in pictures.  Naína represses the urge to wonder out loud if she and Kátya might be suffering from consumption, since their skin is so pale in comparison to the servant’s healthy dark skin.

“I can’t believe you have a real butler!” Naína says. “Just like in all the old British books!”

“The only other language we know is Ukrainian,” Kátya says. “But we’re not stupid.  We’ll work very hard to learn English.  Does your maid ever speak her African language?”

“You’re allowed to be sterilized in this country without a medical emergency?” Kátya asks. “This is like a science fiction story come to life!”

Naína and Kátya get up to gather shells with the children.  Lyuba doesn’t know whether to find it more refreshing to see teenagers doing an activity with children or depressing to see girls so old reacting to everything as though they’re children themselves.  They’re not even attempting to hide their delight at collecting shells, going on rides, swimming in the ocean, or building sandcastles for the very first time.  As upset as she is at being stuck in the city for so long, at least her own children are having a somewhat normal childhood and aren’t being deprived of simple joys and bombarded with political propaganda in a state-run orphanage.

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Kátya and Naína drop their suitcases as soon as they’re shown into the room, putting Kárla’s little suitcase into the closet.  After throwing their travel clothes on the floor and pulling on their new nightgowns Katrin bought to replace their ugly orphanage-regulation ones, they climb into bed and look up at the stars through their window.

“It’s been a long way from Russia to Toronto,” Kátya says. “Perhaps somewhere out there, our Kárlochka is looking up at the same stars and being looked after by decent people.”

“Perhaps.  We found Sónya and our old friends the Lebedevas after so many years.  I guess some miracles aren’t supposed to happen overnight, since we might not appreciate them as much.”