St. Francis Xavier Church and Xavier High School

In the summer of 1847, English-born Jesuit priest John Larkin was dispatched to create a church and school in New York City. He initially worked in Fordham, the Bronx, but Archbishop John Hughes thought he had what it took to survive that “rough, extraordinary city.”

It took an entire day to travel to downtown Manhattan, and Father Larkin only had fifty cents ($15.77 today).

The next day, Mass was offered for the success of this mission. In attendance was a newly-immigrated French muralist who wanted to thank God for his family’s safe journey. After Mass, he told Father Larkin he’d heard U.S. banks weren’t reliable, and asked how to keep his money safe.

This was no small sum of money, but $5,000 ($157,730.49 today).

Copyright Kwok-Chi Ng

Divine Providence continued shining for Father Larkin. A Protestant church between Bowery and Elizabeth Streets had just gone on sale for $18,000 ($567,829.76 today) after a big schism, and asked $5,000 as a down payment.

Father Larkin promised the good Frenchman security for his money in return for a mortgage on that church, and the church was dedicated in October. Sadly, it burnt to the ground in January, and Father Larkin was asked to return to Fordham.

Despite this tragedy, the congregation rallied behind him to rebuild their church. A surprising source of spiritual fortitude also came from a seemingly chance encounter in The Bowery.

Copyright Scry Photo

Shortly after the fire, a woman selling apples approached him and said, “Well, Father Larkin, so your church is burnt; the Lord be praised!”

Not quite sure what he was hearing, he said, “‘The Lord be praised!’ Are you then glad of it?”

“Oh, God forbid! But then we must give God glory for everything.”

Father Larkin realized she was right, as painful as this situation was, and resolved to take this lesson to heart. The apple seller then lamented being unable to donate any money, since she was a poor widow with five kids, but insisted he take her two finest apples.

And from that moment on, the congregation endeavoured to give God glory for everything, good things as well as bad.

Copyright Beyond My Ken

Father Larkin refused to abandon his congregation, and held Mass in borrowed spaces till 1851, when a new church, designed by William Rodrigue, opened on West 16th St., next to the old church. During this time, Father Larkin declined an offer to become Bishop of Toronto.

Tragedy struck again on 8 March 1877. During a women’s mission, a fire erupted in the packed sanctuary, and panic broke out. Six women and one child died, and the church was gutted.

This happened in part because the church had become too small to comfortably accommodate the entire congregation, since so many people from Catholic countries were immigrating in that era. A new building was needed anyway.

Copyright Steven Bornholtz

In May 1878, the cornerstone for a new church was laid immediately to the west, with 5,000 in attendance. Famous architect Patrick Charles Keely designed it in Roman Basilica style, with a bluish-grey Neo-Baroque façade and gabled portico. His frequent collaborators the Morgan Brothers designed the stained-glass windows in Pre-Raphaelite style.

William Lamprecht, the country’s leading ecclesiastical painter of the era, made almost 50 murals. The beautiful marble, in a rainbow of colors, came from Italy; the onyx came from Mexico; Massachusetts provided granite; and New Hampshire gave the cornices and columns.

This new building could hold 2,000. The total cost was $600,000 ($15,216,352.94 today).

Archbishop Michael Corrigan dedicated the completed church on 3 December 1882.

Copyright Americasroof at English Wikipedia

Every Catholic church has a school, and St. Francis Xavier Church has Xavier High School, also founded by Father Larkin. When he founded what was originally called the College of St. Francis Xavier, he only had five cents left ($1.58 today).

At the time, Father Larkin was also a professor at St. John’s College in Rosehill Manor, now Fordham University in the Bronx. His two schools played the first collegiate baseball game in 1859. Fordham won 33-11.

In 1861, after Father Larkin’s death, the high school was chartered by the state.

Copyright Ajay Suresh

The National Guard began military training at Xavier High School in 1886, and membership became mandatory in 1892. In 1897, collegiate and secondary studies were separated into different departments. The former closed in 1912.

In 1935, the student regiment became Junior ROTC, and the school was declared a military institute in 1968. Not till 1971 did participation in ROTC become optional.

I’ve not used either school nor church in my writing to date, but now I’m quite eager to make St. Francis Xavier the church of my Novak family when they move to New York in 1952.

More information:

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/03/27/realestate/a-sidestreet-surprise-a-monumental-church.html

http://www.nycago.org/Organs/NYC/html/StFrancisXavier.html

http://www.sfxavier.org/

http://www.xavierhs.org/s/81/rd16/start.aspx

http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/larkin_john_8E.html

Walden School and West End Avenue

Walden School was a progressive, popular, innovative school on the historic Central Park West, founded March 1914 by Margaret Naumburg (1890–1983). While travelling Italy with her Barnard roommate Evelyn Dewey and her parents, progressive education pioneers John and Alice Dewey, she learnt under Maria Montessori.

She also studied education under John Dewey as a Columbia grad student. Though Columbia wasn’t properly co-ed till 1983, women were long accepted in the master’s and doctoral programs.

Fertile ground was thus planted for a new type of school, one not rigidly focused on formal textbook learning and a specific curriculum. Ms. Naumburg believed strongly students learn best by developing and following their own passions, and naturally absorbing information and knowledge.

The Children’s School, as it was originally called, had ten pupils and two teachers in a single room. Ms. Naumburg said, ”The purpose of this school is not merely the acquisition of knowledge by children. Its primary objective is the development of their capacities.”

In 1922, it was renamed Walden School, and eventually moved to 1 West 88th St. and Central Park West. Many people were off-put by such a radical-seeming school at first, but it went on to win much respect and renown.

Florence Naumburg Cane (1882–1952), Margaret’s sister and a Walden art teacher

There was no assigned seating, and teachers were called by first names. Even more radically, there were no grades, interviews took the place of entrance exams, and there was no formal preparation for college.

Students had great leeway in choosing their own course of study, and the visual and performing arts were emphasised. Walden frequently held art shows, musicals, panel discussions, and public demonstrations of science, arts, crafts, and wood shop.

Teachers got to know students as individuals, and tailored instruction to their strengths and needs. In keeping with its progressive principles, Walden was desegregated. Though it was a private school with tuition, this wasn’t a bastion of upper-class WASP privilege like certain other city schools.

Walden was particularly popular among intellectual, artistic families from the Upper West Side and Greenwich Village. Some students also came from other boroughs, and scholarships were available. By the 1970s, there were 500 students.

Walden merged with New Lincoln School in 1988, and sadly was forced to close in 1991 due to declining enrollment and financial difficulties.

Famous alumni include historian Barbara Tuchman, journalist Neil Barsky, design writer Steven Heller, dancer Jane Dudley, jazz singer Jeanne Lee, composer Robert Paterson, architect Edgar Tafel, artist Glenn Ligon, and murdered Freedom Rider Andrew Goodman.

Many of my characters from radical and intellectual families attend Walden. During the dark days of McCarthyism, it was safest for against the grain kids to be in alternative schools.

More information:

http://www.nytimes.com/1987/08/02/realestate/cityscape-a-turn-of-the-century-vestige-threatened-on-the-west-end.html

http://www.nytimes.com/1987/06/23/nyregion/walden-school-at-73-files-for-bankruptcy.html

http://www.nytimes.com/1954/03/14/archives/education-in-review-influence-of-the-progressive-school-is-now.html

http://www.nytimes.com/1983/03/06/obituaries/margaret-naumburg-walden-school-founder-dies.html

http://peoplepill.com/people/margaret-naumburg/

http://fcis.oise.utoronto.ca/~daniel_sc/assignment1/1914naumburg.html

West End Avenue was created in the 1880s as 11th Avenue’s northern extension, meant as a commercial street for the incoming moneyed residents of nearby Riverside Drive. The Upper West Side wasn’t very populated at this time, and thus this new street was the far west end of the city. It might as well have been Oregon Country in the 1850s.

Throughout its history, West End Avenue has been almost exclusively residential. Its 48 blocks are full of elegant 19th century townhouses, beautiful prewar luxury apartments (now mostly co-ops) about 12-25 stories high, and houses of worship.

Most of the stables for the city’s remaining horses are on side streets. The stables date to the 19th century, but are fully updated with 21st century technology and conveniences. The horses live upstairs, and the carriages are downstairs.

Straus Park, © Luigi Novi / Wikimedia Commons, named for locals Isidor and Ida Straus, who chose to die together on Titanic

Residents describe West End Avenue as a village with a strong sense of community. Many families have lived there for generations. People know their neighbors, and only leave their homes feet-first.

The 70s and 80s are the Gold Coast, with the most beautiful buildings and wide boulevards. Parts of the avenue became run-down for almost sixty years in the 20th century, but now it’s back to its grandeur, and people are more worried about overgentrification than high crime rates.

Copyright Jim.henderson

Shortly after immigrating in 1921, my characters Katrin and Anastasiya move into a huge penthouse on West End Avenue, in fictitious early co-op The Fourier, named for venerable Utopian Socialist Charles Fourier. When the Konevs move back to the city in 1952, they also move into The Fourier, along with several other families in need of upgraded housing.

More information:

http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/23/realestate/if-you-re-thinking-living-west-end-avenue-quiet-convenient-diverse-involved.html

http://www.nycgovparks.org/parks/straus-park/history

University Heights

For many years, The Bronx’s University Heights was home to NYU’s main campus. So many people have this false perception of The Bronx as one of the most dangerous places in the city, when it was a quite desirable, lovely place till the postwar exodus to suburbia commingled with things like blockbusting and redlining to create severe urban decay and the sharp downward decline of many once-wonderful cities.

University Heights is bordered by West Fordham Rd. on the north, West Burnside Avenue on the south, Jerome Avenue on the east, and the Harlem River on the west. Like much of the rest of the city beyond downtown Manhattan, University Heights too was very rural until developers got to it.

With the coming of the subway in 1917, University Heights swiftly transmogrified into a place for the idle rich to build summer mansions and suburban estates. For modern people with memories and scare stories about how awful the Bronx was at its nadir, it may be hard to picture the borough as a leafy, bucolic getaway from the congestion of Manhattan, with ample room for traditional houses.

The next chapter in the neighborhood’s history, starting not long afterwards, was that of a preponderance of low-rise apartments for the bourgeoisie. Many proletarians making decent money also moved into these apartments, as well as former townhouses split into duplexes.

Croton Aqueduct Walk on Fordham Rd.

In 1894, NYU built its new main campus on a hill in University Heights. Their original campus on Washington Square in Greenwich Village was too overcrowded, and the Bronx had lots of land. The university also desired to follow the rest of the city by expanding upwards.

Because the new campus was so much more spacious, the entire undergrad College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering moved there, along with most of NYU’s other operations. However, the grad school remained on Washington Square. Their original campus was also home to a women’s undergrad auxiliary school in the years before NYU was properly co-ed.

Hall of Fame of Great Americans, Copyright Enki323

In 1900, an outdoor sculpture gallery, the Hall of Fame of Great Americans, was completed, situated on land occupied by the British Army in 1776 during their attack on Fort Washington. Its architect was the infamous Stanford White, and philanthropist Helen Gould (who attended NYU’s law school) donated the Beaux Arts structure.

Inspired by München’s Ruhmeshalle (built 1843–53), NYU’s gallery was the very first hall of fame in the U.S. In those days, “fame” meant “renown,” not “celebrity.” The colonnade has room for 102 bronze busts. Nominees must be U.S. citizens, dead for at least 25 years (originally ten), and have made significant contributions in political, economic, or cultural life.

Copyright Bestbudbrian

Honorees include Clara Barton, Daniel Boone, Jane Addams, Louis Brandeis, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ben Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Washington Irving, Robert E. Lee, Abraham Lincoln, Maria Mitchell, Edgar Allan Poe, both President Roosevelts, Henry David Thoreau, Walt Whitman, and George Washington.

Unelected nominees include Dorothea Dix, Louisa May Alcott, Samuel Adams, Martha Washington, Fiorello LaGuardia, Amelia Earhart, Lou Gehrig, Al Jolson, and Horace Greeley. In August 2017, the busts of Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson were ordered removed by Gov. Andrew Cuomo (because that’ll totally change history that already happened!)

Copyright Hugo L. González

Sadly, the Hall of Fame fell into disrepair after NYU relocated its main campus back to Greenwich Village, and the state spent $3 million in the late 1970s restoring its crumbling foundation. In more recent years, the 98 busts were restored for $200,000.

These days, there are almost no private gifts supporting the Hall of Fame. FDR’s bust was unable to be commissioned for nineteen years, the length of time it took to raise the requisite $25,000. In 2001, Bronx Community College, on whose property it now sits, launched a million-dollar fundraising effort.

Edgar Allan Poe, Copyright Professorcornbread

Though the tragic urban decay in the Bronx hadn’t reached University Heights, according to a city government study, many locals and families of potential NYU students were terrified by the sharp, rapid decline of the nearby Grand Concourse and the borough’s overall state. Between 1969–71 alone, the main campus lost over 40% of its students.

In 1973, NYU sold their University Heights campus to CUNY. Though many alumni wanted the campus to stay in their alma mater’s hands, it wasn’t financially feasible to maintain two campuses. The city was also on the verge of near-bankruptcy.

Local park University Woods also fell into degradation after NYU left. It was once named the city’s worst park.

A number of my characters attend NYU during the years it was in University Heights.

Queens College

Queens College opened 11 October 1937, on the site of the former one-room Jamaica Academy (where Walt Whitman once taught). Built in the early 19th century, Jamaica Academy was on Flushing–Jamaica Rd. (now Kissena Blvd.), and became a public school in 1844. In 1909, it became part of the New York Parental School for troubled boys.

In 1934, NYPS was rocked by rumors of abuse, and an investigation was launched. The school shut down, and students were sent to local public schools. Several months later, school grounds became city property, intended to house 500 mental patients from Randall’s Island Hospital who were temporarily homeless due to the building of the Triborough Bridge. (Unsurprisingly, the evil Robert Moses was involved!)

Concurrently, County Judge Charles S. Colden appointed and chaired a committee to investigate the possibility of a free college in his borough. In September 1935, the response was affirmative. Mayor LaGuardia also came on board in hearty support of such a proposal, and in March 1937, the Board of Education chose the NYPS land as the future location. Paul Klapper, former School of Education dean at City College, was chosen as president.

Though many schools in this era opened much later than they do today, QC didn’t deliberately start its inaugural semester in October by design. A painters’ strike precluded opening when the rest of the city’s colleges began.

Copyright Nkabouris

Happily, the inaugural class of 400 was roughly 50-50. Like Brooklyn College next door, QC too was co-ed from the jump. There were forty teachers and administrators, also about 50-50. Dedication Day was held on 26 October and attended by Mayor LaGuardia.

A special dinner for Dr. Klapper was held 30 October at the Hotel Astor and attended by over one thousand. Guests included Mayor LaGuardia and Gov. Herbert H. Lehman. Dr. Klapper insisted the funds raised go to a student aid fund for the new school.

The first school dance was held Wednesday, 24 November 1937, at which the school colors, blue and silver, were announced.

Rosenthal Library, Copyright Voidvector

In 1940, QC introduced a summer session, evening classes, and radio classes. That year also saw a visit from Roger Baldwin, one of the founders of the ACLU, at a Peace Day Rally.

In 1941, the school was fully accredited, just in time for the first class to graduate on 16 June. The ceremony had to be held in a tent, since it rained that day.

The day after Pearl Harbor, a false air-raid siren disrupted a civilian defense rally on campus, and everyone had to go home. During WWII, over 1,100 men and 22 women from QC served in the military, 59 of whom were KIA. The remaining stateside students held regular War Bond drives, observed Meatless Tuesdays, collected over a ton of scrap metal, and used their own papers for tests.

Façade of Remsen Hall

First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt spoke at the first Spring Victory Lecture in 1943, and that August, the Army Specialized Training Program created a unit to study foreign languages and engineering. A Victory Fleet tanker was later named Queens Victory in gratitude for the school’s role in the war effort.

In 1948, a graduate division was added.

Mrs. Roosevelt visited again in 1951, speaking about the importance of education in the modern world.

Disgracefully, several professors were fired and blacklisted during the dark days of McCarthyism. In 1982, they finally received pension restitution.

In 1960, a dress code was forced on female students, forbidding trousers, shorts, and similar attire. It was lifted in ’67. Also in 1960, smoking was banned in classrooms.

Copyright Tdorante10

Many QC students and alumni were active in the Civil Rights Movement, most famously Andrew Goodman, one of the three slain Freedom Riders. In 1965, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was the first speaker in the JFK Memorial Lecture Series.

Students were also active in protesting the Vietnam War. Some students and professors were arrested for taking part in demonstrations.

Residence hall, Copyright Nkabouris

CUNY schools were closed for two weeks in response to the financial crisis of 1976, when the city very narrowly escaped bankruptcy. Though the adoption of open admissions in 1970 hurt other CUNY schools, QC wasn’t affected as much as the others.

In theory, open admissions sound wonderful, guaranteeing higher education to anyone who graduates high school. However, in actual practice, this flooded schools with underprepared students.

CUNY schools were forced to start charging tuition, and QC lost 15% of its budget. Some faculty resigned in protest, and enrollment sharply dropped.

By 1986, the school had started recovering, and today QC is once again a highly-ranked academic institution.

Powdermaker Hall, Copyright Faisal0926 at English Wikipedia

My characters Patya Siyanchuk and Nikolay Kutuzov-Tvardovsky attend QC to respectively become an art and biology teacher for second careers.

http://www.qc.cuny.edu/about/Glance/80/Pages/Timeline.aspx

Parsons School of Design

Copyright Beyond My Ken

Parsons School of Design was founded as The Chase School by Impressionist painter William Merritt Chase in 1896. He was part of a group of artists from the Art Students League of New York who longed for a more individual and dramatic form of art, something different from the traditional, formal art in vogue.

Two years later, their new institution changed its name to The New York School of Art.

William Merritt Chase, 1849–1916

Prof. Frank Alvah Parsons came on board in 1904 and concurrently studied with artist Arthur Wesley Dow at Columbia. In 1905, he received an art degree from Columbia Teachers College. Within a few years, he became president of the New York School of Art.

Under his tenure, the curriculum took on an innovative direction. Though art schools were nothing new, none had departments for interior, graphic, or fashion design (then called costume design), or advertising. To reflect this new mission, the school was renamed The New York School of Fine and Applied Art in 1909.

Mr. Parsons became sole director in 1911, and continued going from strength to strength. In 1921, he and William Odom established a Parisian branch of the school (pictured above), making Parsons the very first U.S. art and design school with a foreign campus. Outposts in Italy and England were also established.

In 1927, France awarded him the Légion d’Honneur, their highest merit, for his work in advancing Franco–American relations. Expectedly, the Paris Atelier at 9 Place de Vosges was forced to close due to WWII and didn’t reopen till 1948. Only summer courses were offered for many years, but Parsons Paris finally came back into full-time business in 1980.

The school was renamed again in 1936, in honor of Mr. Parsons. However, this name change wasn’t official till 1942.

Frank Alvah Parsons, 1866–1930

The curriculum took on a new direction in response to the upheavals of the 1960s; e.g., the interior design program’s focus went from bourgeois and wealthy homes to prisons, housing projects, and hospitals.

In 1970, Parsons merged with The New School for Social Research, now simply known as The New School. Founded in 1919, that school served as a haven to many refugees from Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and other totalitarian countries. It also took in professors fired by Columbia for refusing to swear a jingoistic loyalty oath.

The University Center for The New School, Copyright Ajay Suresh

Parsons has had many locations over the years, starting at 57 West 57th St. from 1896–1904. In 1905, they opened studios at 76 West 55th St. and 49 Court St. in Brooklyn. In 1906, they opened another campus on 2237-2239 Broadway at the corner of 80th St., which eventually became their main address.

During these early years, Parsons offered summer classes in Chester, Massachusetts; Long Island’s Belle Terre and Bayport; Booth Bay, Maine; and several other locales.

From 1939–54, they moved to 136 East 57th St., and then relocated to 136 East 54th St. from 1954–72. During the latter era, they had studios at other Midtown locations and in Queens.

In 1972, the school moved downtown to 2 West 13th St. and 66 Fifth Avenue. Through the 1990s, Parsons expanded to other downtown addresses, including 25 East 13th St. A Midtown Fashion Center was also opened in 1977 at 560 Seventh Avenue at 40th St.

Since 2014, the University Center is at 63 Fifth Avenue, and the Midtown Fashion Center is downtown.

Today, Parsons offers degrees in fields including architecture, urban design, photography, communication design, fashion design, fine arts, interior design, textiles, lighting design, illustration, design history and practice, data visualization, art media and technology, and industrial design.

My characters Irina Koneva (later Tsvetkova), Panya Ugolnikov, Klarisa Tsvetkova, and Nova Yezhova-Blinova study fashion at Parsons during the 1950s and go into business together.

Irina designs quirky women’s clothes, Panya does unique menswear, Klarisa does accessories, and Nova does shoes. They’re joined by Kristina Chernomyrdina-Yurkova (later Tsvetkova), a jewelry designer.

More information:

http://newschoolhistories.org/

http://www.newschool.edu/about/history/

http://library.newschool.edu/archives/archives_history.php

http://digitalarchives.library.newschool.edu/

http://www.newschool.edu/parsons-paris/

http://www.newschool.edu/parsons/