Though urban legend has it Duck Soup was a box office bomb and caused Paramount to drop the Marx Brothers, it was the sixth-highest-grossing film of 1933. It earned mixed reviews, despite not earning nearly as much money as Paramount hoped for.
The Marxes left Paramount because of contract disputes; deteriorated relationships between them; and a threatened walk-out. Duck Soup also fulfilled the five-film contract they’d signed, so they were free to go elsewhere.
Audiences didn’t warm to it so well because they were in the throes of the Great Depression. They sought lightweight, escapist entertainment, not cynical political satires. The subject matter wasn’t something they felt should be made into a joke.
As MGM wonder boy Irving G. Thalberg explained when they switched studios, there wasn’t enough of a solid story. Audiences needed someone to root for, not a nonstop, disconnected parade of freewheeling comedy, gags, and anarchy.
The MGM films have more tightly-plotted scripts, but they also added something else Thalberg insisted on—a romantic subplot, with the brothers helping the couple to get their happy ever after. Had Zeppo stayed, he would’ve gotten so much more screentime as the romantic lead and straightman!
Most of the characters’ names were altered from the original script. Groucho’s surname was Firestone; Harpo was Brownie; Ambassador Trentino of Sylvania was Ambassador Frankenstein of Amnesia; and Vera Marcal was June Parker. The lattermost started as Mrs. Teasdale’s niece, then became Trentino’s niece, before finally just becoming Trentino’s partner in crime.
Zeppo was also originally Groucho’s son.
Prior to filming, Paramount was near bankruptcy, and on the eve of reorganization. They thought they could use the Marx Brothers as cash cows (like Universal later used Abbott and Costello), based on the huge success of 1932’s Horse Feathers. Unfortunately, the brothers feared they’d never get paid what they were already owed, and threatened to start their own company.
They planned their first indie film as an adaptation of Of Thee I Sing, a Pulitzer Prize-winning Broadway musical. There was talk of Groucho and Chico starring as the characters they played on their radio show, Flywheel, Shyster, and Flywheel.
In 1941, they finally played these characters, Flywheel and Ravelli, in the dreadful The Big Store. Many of the gags and routines in the final script came from the radio show.
This indie film never came to fruition, and the team of Bert Kalmar, Harry Ruby, and Arthur Sheekman, whom they’d worked with before, began writing a script with the working title Firecrackers. Two months later, it was changed to Cracked Ice. Several more months later, it became Grasshoppers.
The ultimate title was the same one director Leo McCarey had used for a 1927 Laurel and Hardy short. In U.S. slang of the time, duck soup referred to an easy job.
The title also continued their animal theme, after Animal Crackers, Monkey Business, and Horse Feathers.
Mussolini banned the film, taking it as a personal insult, while the city of Fredonia, NY, wanted the fictional nation’s name changed. They thought it’d hurt their reputation. The brothers fired back, telling them to change their name to avoid hurting the movie.